THE MEANING OF MISSION AND PROCLAMATION IN THE EAST SYRIAN QURBANA

 

 

A Liturgical Theology of Mission

 

Dr. Pauly Maniyattu

pmaniyattu@yahoo.co.in

 

Aopenbible-e1338341838104ny meaningful discussion on mission has to highlight the trinitarian foundation of mission and proclamation.  The mission given to the Church has its basis on the mission of the Son in the economic Trinity. “As the Father sent me, so I am sending you” (Jn 20:21).  The mission of the Church is based also on the mission of the Holy Spirit. The foundation of mission is seen not only in the economic Trinity – the Trinity as manifested in the economy of salvation, but also in the immanent Trinity – the Trinity understood as the intimate communion of three persons. The economic Trinity manifests how the immanent Trinity is the source of the ‘mission’. We cannot but turn to the generation of the Son and the procession or the bestowal of the Spirit in the immanent Trinity whenever we start to say something about the theology of Christian mission.[1]

Jesus’ mission is one and the same with his life.  For him ‘to be’ is equal to ‘to be sent.’  The whole life of Jesus is to be seen against the mission for which he was sent.  The work of salvation accomplished through the passion, death and resurrection is, therefore, the mission of Jesus. The whole life of Jesus is his proclamation. Very often we are tempted to think of mission as necessarily a topographical and sociological phenomenon.  Thus we specifically speak about missionaries who are away in a different land, among a different people and engaged in some sort of proclamation through words and deeds. We don’t mean to say that Jesus’ mission had no topographical and sociological dimensions.  But to equate his mission with only these dimensions would be quite precarious.   The very incarnation and life of Jesus was the mission he took from the Father.  The verbal proclamation that he made is but only a factor of the true mission.  The proclamation on the cross and through the empty tomb is far more superior to any of the proclamations or teachings that Jesus made orally. 

In this study we may try to answer two questions: How does the eucharistic liturgy celebrate the divine missions, namely that of the Son and of the Holy Spirit? How is the divine proclamation celebrated in the eucharistic liturgy? We shall try to answer these questions, especially in the light of the East Syrian Qurbana.

I. Divine Missions Celebrated in Qurbana

          Jesus himself testifies to the fact that he is sent by the Father into the world (Jn 3:16-17; Jn 17: 8,18.)  This mission is destined for salvation through the proclamation of both words and deeds. East Syrian Qurbana celebrates the processions of Son and the Spirit and commemorates the proclamation of the paschal mystery.

Eucharistic liturgy celebrates the mission of God through the signs and symbols of space, persons, objects, words, actions, time etc.  The East Syrian Liturgy celebrates the mission of God as clearly as possible.  In order to emphasise the mission of the Son and that of the Spirit, the symbolic action is repeated at different phases.  We shall see the important actions in the Qurbana which symbolize the sending of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.

1.1. Mission of the Son

          The sending of the Son is commemorated in the East Syrian Qurbana mainly through three processions: procession from sanctuary to the bema; procession of Gospel and Communion procession.

1. 1.1. Procession from Sanctuary to Bema

          The solemn procession from the sanctuary to the bema at the beginning of the liturgy is unique to the East Syrian tradition. The liturgy of the Word in the East Syrian Qurbana takes place on the bema, and therefore the ministers proceed to the bema to begin the liturgy of the Word or the liturgy of the bema.[2]  The architectural disposition of the East Syrian church building implies an entrance procession from the sanctuary.  The possibility of an entrance from the western door is ruled out by the central structure of the bema which is attached to a small wall in the centre of the haykla dividing the haykla into two sections.[3]

          The text of the Raza in use in the Syro-Malabar Church[4] of St. Thomas Christians has the following description on the procession at the beginning of the Qurbana.

          The celebrant, after having washed his hands and put on the sacred vestments, enters the sanctuary in procession accompanied by the archdeacon, deacons and other ministers, each wearing sacred vestments appropriate to him.  In the procession are to be borne a cross, a censer, candles and the Gospel.  The archdeacon stands on the left of the celebrant and the first deacon behind him.  The second deacon stands behind the archdeacon… The other ministers stand on either side of the deacons.  The second deacon who carries the Gospel places it on the left side on the altar.  After bowing to the altar all go to the Bema.  The first deacon who carries the cross places it on the credence in the middle of the Bema with two candles one on either side.[5]

          Historically this procession was instituted for the practical purpose of the entry of the bishop. Gabriel Qatraya speaks of a solemn procession to the bema with the cross, two candles and incense.[6] Bar Zo‘bi and Abdišo have a similar reference to the procession.[7]  Abraham bar Lipah and Timothy II do not directly speak about the procession.  However, their interpretation of the meaning of the candles, incense and the opening of the veil points to the procession itself.[8]  The Anonymous Author says that Išo‘yahb III established a solemn order for this procession:  The clergy in the sanctuary line up; the subdeacons wait on the qestroma.  The archdeacon gives a signal, and the veil is open.  The two officiating deacons (Michael and Gabriel) walk in the front, and then the two subdeacons, who carry the lamps and candles, and other subdeacons.  They are followed by the deacons carrying the cross and the gospel, and finally the priests and the bishop with the archdeacon on his left.[9]

          The entry of the bishop marked the official beginning of the liturgy.[10]The most ancient practice was to begin the Qurbana with the procession to the bema preceded by the greeting and followed by readings.[11]  Waiting for the bishop, the congregation spent the time praying the psalms.  According to the Anonymous Author, the marmitha has the simple function of filling the time until the bishop’s arrival in the sanctuary.[12] Today Syro-Malabar Church has the entrance procession at the very beginning, whereas in the Chaldean tradition there is also the practice of the celebrant remaining in the sanctuary up to the Laku Mara and coming to the door of the sanctuary for the liturgy of the Word, without the solemn procession.[13]

          The anthem accompanying the procession, namely the ‘onitha d-qanke (anthem of the sanctuary) reveals the importance of this procession.  The Anonymous Author refers to the anthem as the ‘anthem of the throne’ or ‘the anthem of the sanctuary’.[14] The title ‘onitha d-qanke might have originated because of the entry of the bishop into the sanctuary.  Moreover there was also the custom of opening the sanctuary at this time, symbolizing the opening of heaven.[15]  According to the early tradition, the second ‘onitha (of the cross) seems to accompany the enthronement of the cross on the altar of the bema.[16]

          The solemn procession from the sanctuary to the bema is the first important movement in the East Syrian liturgy.  If we are to take into consideration the symbolism of the sanctuary and the bema, it is clear that the movement from the sanctuary to the bema is a movement from heaven to the world.  It is the first initiative taken by God himself.  It represents the mystery of the incarnation. The commentators explain that the cross coming out from the sanctuary represents Jesus, our Lord, coming to us.  According to Gabriel Qatraya, Abraham bar Lipah, Yohannan bar Zo‘bi and Abdišo of Nisibis, it is the symbol of Jesus going out into the desert and fighting with Satan.  The erection of the cross on the bema in the company of the deacons and priests symbolizes the mystery of Jesus going up to Jerusalem accompanied by his twelve and seventy two disciples.[17]  Thus the transfer of the cross from the sanctuary to the bema symbolizes the coming of the Lord from heaven, his manifestation and ministry. The anthem announces symbolically the manifestation of the Lord.  It alludes to the mystery of the praise of the heavenly congregation and to John the Baptist’s proclamation of Christ.[18]  The Anonymous Author says that the procession is from heaven to Jerusalem. “And thus from heaven, along the way trodden by the prophets, the ladder which Jacob saw, he descends and comes to Jerusalem.  Indeed they proceed from the sanctuary – heaven – and come to the bema – Jerusalem.”[19]  All of the commentators agree on the symbolism that the procession to the bema represents the incarnation and manifestation of the Lord. Thus the procession from the sanctuary to the bema celebrates the sending of the Son by the Father into the world. 

1.1.2. Procession of the Gospel

          There is a second procession from the sanctuary to the bema.  This time the priest carries the Gospel, the symbol of Christ.  This procession has the general symbolism of Christ coming down from heaven to the earthly Jerusalem for the ministry. However, the commentators differ with regard to the details. According to Commentators like Qatraya, Abraham bar Lipah, the Anonymous Author, Bar Zo‘bi and Abdišo the procession of the gospel with the cross gives the reading of the gospel an interpretation which goes beyond the purpose of instruction through the Word.  Qatraya views this second procession as a preparation for the passion.  It is the solemn entry into Jerusalem:

          The going out of the gospel and the cross with it is the mystery of the humanity of our Lord which was with body and soul.  The cross is the mystery of the body which was crucified and the gospel is the mystery of the soul in which there is reasonableness.  The gospel goes out with the solemnity of the deacons in the mystery of the solemnity with which our Lord entered Jerusalem riding on an ass.[20]

The same interpretation is found in Abraham and Bar Zo‘bi.[21] The reference to the solemn entry into Jerusalem and the symbolism of the cross as the crucified body indicate that this procession  symbolises the preparation for the passion.  The reading is presented as the culmination of the entry into Jerusalem.[22] It is the mystery of all the words which our Lord said to the Jews before he suffered.[23]

          The Anonymous Author finds no symbol of the passion in this procession.  According to him it is simply the advent of the Lord from heaven into Jerusalem.[24] Thus this second procession from the  sanctuary to the bema symbolizes the same mystery as the first procession.  But for him the descent of the gospel from the place of the lectors and its placing on the altar of the bema symbolises the crucifixion.[25]

          According to Qatraya, the cross fixed on the pedestal symbolizes the mystery indicated by our Lord when he explained by which death the Son of Man would be exalted, and that no one who would believe in him would be confounded, but would have eternal life.[26]  Abraham and Bar Zo‘bi continue this idea by adding reference to the bronze serpent raised by Moses in the desert.[27]  The return of the gospel, according to Qatraya, is the passion procession.  Qatraya gives a detailed account of this passion procession. The removal of the cross with the gospel from the throne signifies the mystery of the arrest of Jesus and the journey to the place of the crucifixion.  The priest carrying the gospel stands for John the Evangelist.  The deacon who carries the cross represents Simon of Cyrene who carried the cross for Jesus.  The erection of the cross at the sanctuary door is the mystery of the crucifixion.  The separation of the gospel from the cross and its replacement on the other side is the mystery of the separation of Christ’s soul from his body and its entry into Paradise.[28] According to the Anonymous Author, the procession of the gospel and cross back to the sanctuary symbolizes the ascension, the solemn entry of the Lord into heaven.[29]  Qatraya sees the rites and prayers following the reading of the gospel as having some kind of reference to the passion.  The turgama (homily) after the gospel is the mystery of the teaching which Jesus gave before his passion; the karozutha and bautha are the prayer before the passion; the prayer of siam’ida (imposition of hand) is the mystery of the prayer which Jesus made for the disciples before his suffering.[30] According to the Exposition, the karozutha signifies the passion, death and resurrection.  The imposition of hand is the benediction that Christ gave at his ascension.[31]

          The gospel processions between the sanctuary and the bema (that is, from the sanctuary to the bema and back to the altar), together with the rites in connection with the reading, celebrate the central mysteries of the Christ-event, the incarnation, the earthly ministry, the teaching of the Lord, the passion, death, resurrection and ascension.  The gospel processions re-enact in spacetime the movements of God toward man accomplished in the salvific work of Christ.

1.1.3. Communion ProcessionPopeJohnPaulII_SyroMalabarVestments-1

          In the procession of Communion the symbolism becomes more intense. The coming down of the Son from heaven now is with the view to the salvific encounter with the believer.  Here the Word proclaimed has a new form.  The Word comes in the form of bread.  The commentators give great importance to the Communion procession.  According to Narsai, this procession is a symbol of the meeting of two Churches, the earthly, and the heavenly. The Anonymous Author views the coming of the priest from the sanctuary to distribute Communion as symbolizing Christ descending from heaven to Jerusalem.[32] According to Bar Zo‘bi, the distribution of Communion is the symbol of the manifestation of the risen Lord to those who believed in him. For the faithful, this procession is the time of encounter with the risen Lord.  In Narsai’s vision, such an encounter is realized in participating in the death and resurrection of the Lord. 

1.2. Mission of the Spirit

          The commemoration of the mission of the Spirit has entirely a different symbolic structure.  There is no procession.  However the bodily gestures signify the coming down from heaven. All liturgies emphasise the coming down of the Holy Spirit.  Hence epiclesis, the prayer invoking the Holy Spirit is important. The Eastern anaphoras, especially the East Syrian anaphoras consider the mission of the Spirit as sanctification.  Thus concrete purpose of the sanctification is announced in the epiclesis.  The anaphora of Addai and Mari has the stress on the sanctification of the assembly rather than the sanctification of the mysteries.[33]  The epicletic prayer is usually addressed to the Father to send his Spirit.  The Qurbana celebrates the coming down of the Spirit.  The celebration of the mission of the Spirit stresses the purpose of the mission of God, that is the sanctification of man.  According to the Christian theology, the Holy Spirit is the “principal agent of evangelization”[34]. The mission of Jesus is always associated with the Spirit[35].

2. Mission is the Proclamation of the Paschal Mystery

Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Paschal Mystery

All the karozuthas in the liturgy have one and the same content, that is the paschal mystery of Christ.  That has been always the content of the Apostolic preaching.  Even during the liturgy of the Word, the East Syrian tradition is particular to proclaim the entire paschal mystery.

          Eucharistic liturgy is the celebration of the paschal mystery.  Emphasising the aspect of the commemoration of the paschal mystery the East Syrian liturgy is called Raza, meaning mystery. The East Syrian tradition considers this commemoration as the proclamation or karozutha.  Even though the whole liturgy is proclamation of the mystery of salvation, liturgy names certain elements specially as proclamation (karozutha).   It is mainly within the frame of the proclamation of the Word.  The East Syrian liturgy commemorates the paschal mystery through the karozutha or proclamation.  Even though the whole liturgy is proclamation of the mystery of salvation, certain elements in liturgy are specially called proclamation (karozutha).  The Liturgy of the Word is the most important occasion of the karozutha.   We may observe five levels of karozuthas in the East Syriac Qurbana: 1. Karozutha of the Old Testament (Readings of Law and Prophets who proclaim the mystery of Christ through figures and symbols. 2. Karozutha of the Apostle (Epistle especially of Apostle Paul) 3. Karozutha of the evangelist(eg: Karozutha d mathai) 4 Karozutha made by the priest (homily) 5. The Karozutha of the faithful and deacon. Besides these karozuthas of the Liturgy of the Word the deacon has other karozuthas too in the Qurbana.

 All the karozuthas in the liturgy have one and the same content, that is the paschal mystery of Christ.  That has been always the content of the Apostolic preaching.  Even during the liturgy of the Word, the East Syrian tradition is particular to proclaim the entire paschal mystery.Thus the liturgy of the Word becomes the commemoration of the life, teachings, saving deeds, passion, death, and resurrection of the Lord.  The commentators all stress this aspect.  The karozutha of the priest has to present a specific portion of the Word of God in its relation to the entire paschal mystery. The karozuthas of the deacon, which are already fixed by the liturgical traditions, proclaim the paschal mystery, however, seen it as the means of our sanctification.

          Proclamation of the paschal mystery in the form of the symbol of faith is very significant in the East Syrian Qurbana.  Every eucharistic celebration demands the solemn proclamation of faith just before the anaphora. The proclamations become offering of praise and thanksgiving in the g’hanta prayers (prayers of inclination) of the East Syrian anaphoras. God’s work of creation, redemption and ongoing sanctification is proclaimed along with praise and thanksgiving during the g’hantas.

3. Eucharist and Mission

          We have already seen how the eucharistic celebration becomes the celebration of the mission of God to man.  Therefore, mission and Eucharist are one and the same reality.  With regard to the mission of the believers too, this is true. As Cardinal Ratzinger observes the missionary work of the apostle is not a reality which is close to the liturgy, rather both these realities are one organic totality in multiple dimensions.[36] In fact, the mission in the Holy Qurbana is not a terminus, rather it is a middle point where the heavenly mission ends and the mission of space and time begins.  Thus for the believers the eucharistic celebration is only the starting point. The Eucharist being the mystical centre of Christianity, is the source of the Christian mission.  In the Eucharist God continuously comes out from himself in a mysterious manner and embraces us. When we say that Eucharist is the source of mission, it does not mean in a sense of giving propaganda. If we approach the Eucharist with such an attitude that would destroy both Eucharist and mission.

          The success of mission depends not on the exterior propaganda.  The true mission is that which comes from God and that which leads to God.  Hence it is necessary to concentrate on the centre of the Church into which God comes out to embrace all the men. Ratzinger shows Therese of Lisieux, as a true model for the missionary.  Even though she never went out of the convent for the mission work she became the patron of mission, simply because of the fact that she found out the true source of mission as Eucharist, the core of the Church.  She calls this centre as heart and love.[37] It is the Holy Spirit who works out the equation of mission and Eucharist.  Spirit’s mission in the Eucharist is sanctification for communion or love.  The believer who participates in the eucharistic celebration ought to continue the mission of sanctification for love.  Therese of Lisieux, the patron of mission responded properly to the mission of Spirit and thus found the Eucharist, the heart and love of the Church as the true source of mission.

3.1. Eucharist and Conversion

          Liturgy celebrates the divine missions through the commemoration of the paschal mystery. Thus mission in liturgy is nothing but the proclamation or karozutha of the mystery of salvation. Eucharist asks us to continue the karozutha which was made in liturgy through signs and symbols. We have to continue that in real life.  Now the new symbols of life becomes the instruments for realizing the proclamation.  This proclamation is first of all for me and then for others.  The true eucharistic celebration is an experience of conversion (metanoia).  We meet God in the liturgy in a way that leads to conversion. Each eucharistic celebration is an invitation for conversion.  The eucharistic karozutha is given to me first for my conversion.

3.1. 1. Eucharist: Proclamation for Personal Conversion

          The East Syrian Holy Qurbana emphasises the need of the personal conversion to that extent that it retains some of the radical styles of Christian believers. Personal conversion is expressed through repentance and reconciliation. The great stress given to the sanctification of the assembly is the evidence for this concern of conversion.  God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit are sent to us for our sanctification.  East Syrian Qurbana, especially in the epiclesis of the anaphora of Addai and Mari, gives more importance to the change of the assembly of believers than to the change of the mysteries.  Accordingly scholars consider the epiclesis of Addai and Mari as a communion epiclesis.[38]  The mysteries sanctified should lead me to my sanctification and thus put me in communion with God and my fellow beings.  The anaphora is called Quddasha or sanctification.  Here, even though the primary reference is to the mysteries, the whole trend of the Qurbana shows that it is all the more meant for the Quddasha of the believers.  Thus we have so many symbols of the proclamation of conversion and celebration of conversion. 

          The karozutha of the deacon is very often admonition given to the assembly.  It could be even compared to the proclamation of John the Baptist.  The East Syrian Deacon is sharp in his exhortations.  The most radical form of the diaconal admonition may be seen in the dismissal rite, consisting of the dismissal of the three groups who have not received baptism, the sign of life and the Qurbana. According to Narsai of Nisibis, the sign of life refers to the ancient practice of administering the sign of the cross on the forehead of the penitents who are reconciled to the liturgical assembly during the Qurbana.  The practice of the ancient Church was to send out the public sinners from the eucharistic assembly.  Once they repent and come back to the Church after having fulfilled the penance asked by the Church, they would be re-admitted.  The East Syrian tradition had the practice of celebrating the reconciliation and absolution of such penitents during the Qurbana.  It is called rite of hussaya.  Thus the exhortation of the deacon sending out those who have not received the sign of life means that only those who are properly reconciled with God may participate in the eucharistic celebration.  Hence conversion is a must for the participation in the Qurbana. The present Syro-Malabar Church is not courageous enough to ask her deacons to say these harsh words during the eucharistic celebration. 

          The karozutha sung both by the deacon and assembly, as an immediate preparation for the Communion, is one proclaiming the conversion.  It clearly declares the will of the liturgical assembly for reconciliation with God and fraternal reconciliation. To the deacon’s admonition for conversion the assembly responds with the prayer: “Lord, forgive the sins and offences of your servants.”

          The radical insistence on the reconciliation is clear from the form of the Lord’s Prayer retained in the East Syrian liturgy.  It has the Mathean version “As we also have forgiven our debtors” (Mt 6: 12). When the Western tradition prefers the Lukan version of the same petition “for we ourselves forgive everyone who is indebted to us” (Lk 11:4), East Syrian liturgy insists on the Mathean form which can be said only by one who is already reconciled horizontally.

          The rite of incensing has a special significance for the Eastern Christians with regard to conversion. The reconciliatory aspect of the rite of incensing is stressed by the Eastern Churches. East Syrian Qurbana sees the incense as a powerful instrument for the remission of sins. To understand this we need only to look into the incensation during the rite of reconciliation.  We cannot ignore the practice of the St. Thomas Christians approaching the incense in the church for the remission of sins.

          Finally, we find the rite of communion as literally for conversion.  The Qurbana is received ‘for the remission of sins.’  This important aspect is maintained in the communion formula which says: “The Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be unto the remission of sins and life everlasting.”

3.1.2. Eucharist Asks Me to Proclaim Conversion to Others

          It is not enough that I am converted.  The proclamation of the Christ-event which accounted for my conversion, has to be continued. Now I have to proclaim the mystery of salvation to others.   How can we proclaim the Good News, heard in the eucharistic celebration.  Here we are confronted with the different methods of mission.  Taking into consideration the style of the proclamation in the Qurbana as a whole, the emphasis seems to be more on the exhortation for conversion.  We may be able to do this exhortation only through leading a life of conversion.  It is in fact, the mission based on love.  The love of the Christ seen at the core of the Eucharist contributes to my salvation.  Now I have to live the same love in the Church and continue the mission of Christ.

          The genuine celebration of the Eucharist is also a very powerful means of preaching.  The legend regarding the origin of Christian religion in Russia gives an example for this.  The envoys of the Prince Vladimir of Kiev looking for the best possible religion, are taken up by the celebration of the liturgy in the Hagia Sophia cathedral of Constantinople.  The mere participation in the liturgy accounted for their conversion to Christian faith.  They found the Christian religion very much attractive, in its celebrative form.  In the case of our missions a meaningful eucharistic celebration is a more powerful and fruitful instrument of proclaiming the Good News of Christ. The best time for hearing the Word of God is that of liturgy.   The liturgical context would evoke a better response in the one who hears the Word.  In the liturgy of the Word, it is God the Word himself who is speaking.  Therefore, it has no comparison with the nonliturgical proclamation of the Word.

Conclusion

          For a proper vision of mission we have to locate it in the context of the eucharistic celebration.  There we find the realities like the mission of God, Eucharist, and the mission of Church coming together.  In fact, we cannot view them as independent realities.  These all may be seen as different modes of one and the same reality.  Thus we can say that the divine missions result in the Eucharist; Eucharist leads to the mission of the believer which in turn again accounts for the origin of Church.  In fact, all these are centered on the reality of Church.  The experience of Church is had in the Eucharist, the centre of the Church.  Thus mission is essentially an ecclesial reality and that is celebrated in the Holy Qurbana.  The liturgical celebration of mission is based on the divine missions and the liturgical task of mission is proclamation of the paschal mystery. The liturgical celebration of mission is only the starting point.  In the case of faith, it is celebrated in liturgy, whereas it is lived in life. Our faith is celebrated in liturgy, but it is lived in our mission outside the liturgy.  According to the model of the divine missions, liturgy sends the believers out into the world to proclaim through their lives what they have already proclaimed in liturgy through signs and symbols.


 

[1] E.J.Kilmartin, Christian Liturgy: Theology and Practice: I. Systematic Theology of Liturgy, Kansas City 1988, 124-134.

[2] The East Syrian liturgical space is mainly divided into three: 1. Madbaha (sanctuary) 2. Haykla (nave) 3.Qestroma (choir).  In the middle of the haykla there is an elevated platform called bema with an altar for the Gospel and cross, chairs for the bishop, archdeacon and other ministers, and lecterns. Madbaha symbolizes heaven, haykla symbolizes earth, and bema symbolizes the earthly Jerusalem. Qestroma represents middle space between heaven and earth.  It also symbolizes Paradise.  For more details regarding the symbolism of the East Syrian liturgical space see P. Maniyattu, Heaven on Earth: The Theology of Liturgical Spacetime in the East Syrian Qurbana, Rome 1995, 151-184.

[3] Cf. R. Taft, “Some Notes on the Bema in the East and West Syrian Traditions”, OCP 34 (1968)336.

[4] The Church of St. Thomas Christians follows the East Syrian liturgical tradition with Indian adaptation.

[5]The Syro-Malabar Qurbana: The Order of Raza (=Raza), Trivandrum 1989, 1.

[6]Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation of the Offices”, P. Podipara, trans., in G. Vavanikunnel, ed., Homilies and Interpretations on the Holy Qurbana, Changanacherry 1977, 90.

[7] Yohannan Bar Zo‘bi, Explanation of the Divine Mysteries, T. Mannooramparampil, trans., OIRSI, Kottayam 1992, 24-26; Abdišo, Ordo iudiciorum ecclesiasticorum: Collectus, dispositus, ordinatus et compositus a Mar Abdišo metropolita Nisibis et Armeniae, J.M. Vosté, ed. & trans., Fonti, serie II, fasc. XV: Caldei-Diritto antico II, S. Congregazione per la Chiesa Orientale, Vaticano 1940, 94.

[8] Cf.Abraham bar Lipah, “Abrahae Bar Lipheh Qatarensis interpretatio officiorum” in Anonymi auctoris expositio officiorum ecclesiae Georgio Arbelensi vulgo adscripta, R.H. Connolly, ed. & trans.,   CSCO syri, series secunda, tom.92, Rome 1915, 150-51; Timothy II, “The Causes of the Seven Mysteries of the Church”, IV, 15.

[9]Anonymi auctoris expositio officiorum ecclesiae Georgio Arbelensi vulgo adscripta. Accedit Abrahae Bar Lipheh interpretatio officiorum, R.H. CONNOLLY, ed. & trans., CSCO, series secunda, syri 92, Rome 1915 (= Expositio II) , 9-10.

[10] Cf. S.H. Jammo,  La structure de la messe chaldéenne du début jusqu’à l’anaphore, Roma 1979, 75.

[11]P. Yousif, “The Divine Liturgy According to the Rite of the Assyro-Chaldean Church”, in J. Madey, ed., The Eucharistic Liturgy in the Christian East, Kottayam-Paderborn 1982, 197.

[12]Expositio II, 9. Cf. Jammo, Messe chaldéenne, 69.

[13] Yousif, “Divine Liturgy”, 200.

[14] Cf. Expositio II, 9.  

[15] Cf. Expositio II, 10. There was also another custom of opening the sanctuary only at Laku-Mara.

[16] Jammo, Messe chaldéenne, 82.

[17] Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation”, 90; Abraham bar Lipah, “Interpretatio”, 158; Yohannan Bar Zo‘bi, Explanation, 25. Abdišo seems to suggest the presence of the deacons as representing the angels who ministered to Jesus after the temptation (Mt 4.11). “Crux quae egreditur ad bema in sollemni processione sacerdotum et diaconorum, egressus Domini nostri in desertum die quo ministrarunt ei angeli.” Abdišo, Ordo iudiciorum, 94.

[18] Cf. Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation”, 90; Yohannan bar Zo‘bi, Explanation, 24-25; Abraham Bar Lipah, “Interpretatio”, 158; Abdišo, Ordo iudiciorum, 94.

[19]Expositio II, 10.

[20] Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation”, 92. The gospels treat the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem as the entry into his passion. “From that time Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things from the elders…” Mt 16.21. “When the days drew near for him to be received up, he set his face to go to Jerusalem.” Lk 9.51. Cf. Lk 17.11.

[21] Abraham bar Lipah, “Interpretatio”, 159.

[22] Cf. Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation”, 92-93; Yohannan Bar Zo‘bi, Explanation, 29.

[23] Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation”, 92-93.

[24]Expositio II, 25.

[25]Expositio II, 27-28.

[26] Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation”, 93.

[27] Cf. Abraham bar Lipah, “Interpretatio”, 159; Yohannan bar Zo‘bi, Explanation, 30.

[28] Cf. Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation”, 93-94; Yohannan bar Zo‘bi, Explanation, 32-33; Abraham bar Lipah, “Interpretatio”, 160; Abdišo, Ordo iudiciorum, 95-96.

[29]Expositio II, 29.

[30] Cf. Gabriel Qatraya, “Interpretation”, 93.

[31]Expositio II, 29.

[32] Cf. Expositio II, 80.

[33] “…And dwell in this Qurbana of your servants and bless it and sanctify it that it may be to us, O My Lord, unto the pardon of debts, remission of sins and the great hope of resurrection from the dead and new life in the kingdom of heaven with all those have found favour in your presence.” Epiclesis of Addai and Mari, Raza,45.

[34]Evangelii Nuntiandi, 75.

[35]Redemptoris Missio, 36.

[36] J.Ratzinger, “Eucaristia come genesi della missione”, Ecclesia Orans, 15 (1998)159.

[37] J.Ratzinger, “Eucaristia come genesi della missione”, 160-61.

[38] J. Lamberts, “ ‘May Your Holy Spirit, Lord, Come …’: Some Reflections on the Epiclesis”, ETJ 2 (1998)101-104.

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