Fr. David Vadakkummuriyil M Th
Symbols occupy a vital role in the social and religious life of human beings. From the beginning of civilization symbols are invariably used, more categorically to say before the emergence of the language. But in the scorching light of reformation and enlightenment the importance of symbols has been diminished. But now the situation is changing. Almost all the Churches have rediscovered the use of symbols in their liturgies in one form or the other. We need spiritual and emotional means for the expression of our gratitude and love towards God. The Western Christianity failed in the articulation of this fact. They gave more importance to preached word. But language has its own limitations to express our devotion to God. Feeling, taste, sight, and smell can make deeper impressions in our mind than hearing. In the West Syrian Liturgy many natural symbols such as oil, water, flower, and leafs are used.
Water is undoubtedly one of the most ancient and universal symbols of all religions. In the biblical view water is prima material and prima essential of the world. It is the basic element for the world. We find water at the very beginning, in the first chapter of Genesis. In Gen 1, 2 we understand that water becomes symbol of creation.
In the secular level water is inevitable for the growth and existence of plants, birds, beats and every other living organism. Without water all form of biological life would cause to exist. Water is the symbols of the world as cosmos and life, and also it is the symbol of destruction and death. Judgment and death in the account of the flood, and of the annihilation of Pharaoh and his army depicts that water as the symbol of destruction and death.
Finally water is the principle of purification or cleansing and therefore, of regeneration and renewal. Therefore water is used as an important symbol in West Syrian Liturgy. In the liturgical sacraments of the Church namely in Baptism, Eucharist, Epiphany, Washing of the feet, Blessing of the house and Pentecost water plays a prominent role as symbol. Most of these ideas have taken from the Bible and early Christian writings.
1. IN THE LITURGY OF BAPTISM
Baptism proper begins with the blessing of the water. The symbolism of water in the baptismal liturgy is very much important to understand the baptismal theology. The place of water in the sacrament of Baptism signifies two important baptismal themes, 1) New creation 2) Purification.
1.1. Water Symbol of Re-Creation
The sacrament of Baptism makes every person re-created. By dipping or pouring of water in baptism, the baptized is recreated and made a new person. In the first prayer of the blessing of the water (the consecration of water) includes a series of rites. First of all, the priest takes warm water in his right hand and cold water in his left. He places right hand over the left in the form of a cross and recites the prayer with mixing the water. The meaning of this rite is not clear from the early commentators on Baptism and they ignore this rite. Later in the course of time developed different meaning in different traditions. (1) According to some it is a symbol of two springs, one of warm water and other with cold water, which flowed into Jordan at the place where our Lord was baptized. (2) For Armenians, it seems this rite to be a symbol of the blood and water, which flowed from the side of our Lord. (3) Some others say that, whether it is hot or cold, this is done because of the child, it may not suffer pain. (4) In the Antiochene-Syrian office of the Epiphany it is said in some places that by the contact of our Lord’s body the water of the river Jordan became warm viewed in the light. This may be understood a symbol of the burning Divinity coming to the cold baptismal water. So the use of the warm water is a symbol which connects the baptismal water with the water of the Jordan. (5) According to Baby Varghese warmth is the symbol of life. In the beginning the Ruho made the water warm and made a womb capable of generating life. Thus according to Gen 1, 20 creativeness of water are the first to be created. Similarly in the baptismal water made warm and the womb which gives ‘rebirth’. The life giving warmth through the presence of the ‘Ruho’ is symbolized by the use of warm water.
“Mix, o Lord God, in this water by the supplication of our feebleness, the power and the operation of the Holy Spirit, so that this may be a spiritual womb, and a refining pot (a furnace) which forms incorruptibility.”
Here the priest awakes the Holy Spirit to come upon the water by which the Pont is made a ‘Spiritual Womb’ and refining pot (furnace) which forms the incorruptibility. In this prayer water symbolizes two things: 1) Spiritual womb 2) Refining pot (a Furnace).
1.1.1. Spiritual Womb
In the West Syrian Liturgy on Baptism water is represented as a womb because in it people are born again. The baptized person have been immersed in it and come out as reborn. The concept of womb and baptismal theme of re-creation are interrelated. It is trough that each person born of the womb of the mother, i.e., each one is from the womb. According to Christian tradition ‘spiritual womb’ shows the important baptismal theme of recreation and regeneration.
The initial passage of the book of Genesis reveals the significance of water in recreating human lives (Gen 1, 2). God called everything into existence from water. So water was the definitely the womb of the first creation. The work of the Spirit was there upon water (Gen. 1, 2). God created everything by His ‘Word’. As the word of God sounded upon water everything came into existence (1, 26). Man is created as the crown of creation.
For the renewal of man Jesus came and received baptism in Jordan. Jesus speaks of born a new of water and spirit. It is trough this renewal that human beings are initiated into the kingdom of God, which Christ has opened for us through His death and resurrection. Here we can say that water was the womb of the first creation, the same will be required for recreation too.
If by the sin of first Adam sin came into existence, the second Adam Jesus Christ call back us to the state of salvation through His paschal mystery. We can examine this theme from the west Syrian liturgy of Baptism (Rom 5, 12).
The individual responsibility of sin is quite clear here. As we are responsible for our sins we should acquire renewal individually. The baptism of Christ has opened the way for new humanity. This idea is expressed in the hymn in baptismal liturgy. “Poor man Adam called sadly upon the Lord God, when he had fallen and He indeed answered him when He came to the floods of the river Jordan, and He renewed him who in the beginning had fallen into destruction.” Here Christ was answering the call of Adam in the river Jordan. In the liturgy of Epiphany we sing, “when the work of His hand was seeing bound by the evil… his impurity were removed in the water of Jordan and by His will the image of fallen Adam was renewed.”
1.1.2. The Robe of Glory
According to Ephrem and Jacob of Serugh Baptismal water is termed as the furnace and through its spirit the baptized receives the ‘robe of glory’, which was lost because of Adam’s disobedience, and further he receiving the protective armor as well. Ephrem states, “In Baptism Adam found again that glory which was among the trees of Eden. He went down and received it out of water, he put it on, and went up, and was adorned in it. Blessed be He that has mercy on all.”
Jacob of Serugh describes how the robe of glory once again becomes available to humanity. “Christ came to baptism he went down and placed in the baptismal water the robe of glory so that the one Adam had lost might be there for him.” Indeed about the robe he proclaims: The Father prepared it, the Son wove it, the Spirit cut it off (the lamb), and you went down and put it on from the water in divine passion.
1.2. Water: Symbol of Purification
In West Syrian tradition Baptism is called a spring of purification, which indicate the fact that through the baptismal bath the candidate is purified from all stains of sins. Fathers of the Church also hold the same position that water symbolizes the theme of purification in Baptism which gives way to purification of the body and the soul in total. The same idea is expressed in the following prayer, “Almighty God, make these water for the purification of the defilement of the body and soul for the loosening of the bonds, for the remission of sins, for the enlightenment of the soul and body.” The purification aspect of water in the Baptism is drawn as the fulfillment of the words of the prophet Isaiah, “Wash yourselves make yourselves clean” (Is 1, 52).
1.3. Christ’s Baptism as the Source of Christian Baptism
On the basis of Baptism and Epiphany service of our Lord, we can find out that Jesus Christ was baptized in the river Jordan inorder to sanctify the water of Jordan. In the prayer upon the water on the feast of the Epiphany, the priest says that, “O eternal word of the Father, Jesus Christ, who humbled the majesty of His eternity and was baptized by John, his forerunner, in the river Jordan, inorder to sanctify the waters by the Holiness.”
Again the Christ was not simply sanctifying water of Jordan alone but the whole of the water on earth. The following prayer expresses this fact: “O Holy One, who by the baptism sanctified the water of the pools and the rivers.” Thus from this ideas we can understand that the water of baptism sanctified and get the power to sanctify and purify the baptismal candidate.
2. IN THE LITURGY OF EUCHARIST
In the Eucharistic celebration the celebrant used water on two occasions with corresponding prayers. Prayers in the celebration of the West Syrian Holy Eucharistic celebration clearly point out the significance of the use of water.
2.1. In the Preparatory Rite
In the preparatory rite the priest mixes water with wine. The prayers for this ceremony symbolically state the reason for mixing water with wine. “Unite, O Lord, this water and this wine as your divinity was united with our humanity.”
Here the wine symbolizes the divinity and water symbolizes the humanity of Christ. This shows the unification of God-head and manhood in Christ. This is the Church’s declaration of an important Christological theme that both divinity and humanity are conjoined in the incarnate Jesus Christ. After mixing both these elements the mix remain inseparable. Therefore we cannot separate the divinity and humanity of the incarnate Christ from his personhood.
In his commentary on Eucharist Bar Salibi gives an interpretation regarding the mixing of water with wine. “Why do we mix wine and water in the Chalice and not wine alone? We say because blood and water flowed and not blood alone from our Lord’s side, when it was pierced with a lane.”
The mixing of wine with water symbolizes the following aspects:
- Divinity and humanity conjoined together, i.e., united person of Jesus Christ.
- At the last supper Jesus mixed wine and water.
- Flowing of blood and water from Jesus’ pierced side, which are for the redemption of the whole creation.
- The gift of the Father that is the flow of Holy Spirit upon the holy materials and on the whole congregation (Jn 7, 38-39
2.2. Before the Beginning of the Mysteries
Another occasion in which water is used in the liturgy of the Eucharist is before the beginning of the mysteries. Before entering into Anaphora, liturgy of the sacrament, the priest washes his hand in water with a prayer. “Wash away, O Lord, the defiling filthiness, I may be worthy to enter into Your holy and sanctifying Holy of Holies and without blemish, to handle Your Adorable and divine Mysteries so that, with pure conscience, I may offer unto you a living sacrifice that is well-pleasing to Your Godhead and is like your Glorious Sacrifice, our Lord and our God, forever.” This prayer itself expresses symbolically that the priest attain both physical and spiritual cleansing by the washing of the hand.
According to St. Basil the Great, the washing in the water is a symbol of the cleansing of the soul which is washed clean of all filth that comes of wickedness. So by the external washing of hands our internal impurities can be cleansed and our souls could become sanctified.
According to Bar Salibi the washing before the beginning of the mysteries is to teach the whole people that they also should wash their heart from all worldly anxieties. Again the priest washes (his fingeri) before the mysteries, to indicate that he purifies his consciousness before Christ. Again it indicates that he submits his thoughts and mental impulses to Christ who examines the hearts and reins and tries the hidden things. Again, he washes the tip of the fingers only, to show that he is purified from all sins and that he has only small falls and unworthy imaginations. Again this washing was prefigured in the washing of the Old Testament priests also.”
Moses Barkepha viewed that the celebrant should restrain from worldly things and before achieving to the Holy of Holies. He should cleanse his heart which symbolically is cleans through washing of the hand. And again the washing his (celebrant) feelings and thoughts are cleansed and his heart, mind and thinking all perfectly submitting to the presence of the Lord. According to Cyril of Jerusalem, through the washing it means about the celebrant’s sincerity and holiness in performing the divine offering.
After the ‘kiss of peace’ prayer, celebrant asks the congregation to lift up hearts. They respond through their mind, heart and thought are at the seat of our Lord Jesus Christ. It symbolizes that the cleansing is effected to the whole congregation and they are sanctified inorder to enjoy the presence of heart, physically and mentally.
3. IN THE FEAST OF EPIPHANY
The blessing of the water is a part of Epiphany liturgy performed by the Eastern Church. The Eastern Churches commemorate the Baptism of Jesus in the Epiphany. The importance of Epiphany is that in the Eldho (birth of Jesus Christ) the personhood of Jesus ‘as Son of God’ and Immanuel revealed only to few people, but in the Denho the public declaration has happened that ‘He is the Son of God.’
The blessing of the water is an important liturgical act in the Epiphany service. Jesus consecrates all water resources in the world through His Baptism in Holy Spirit at river Jordan. And the water gets the power to sanctify the humanity and all other creations, which partakes in it. This idea is implicitly hold in the opening prayer of the liturgy. “O Eternal Word of the Father, Jesus Christ, who humbled the majesty of His eternity and was baptized John his forerunner in the river Jordan inorder to sanctify the water by His Holiness.” “O! Holy One who by His Baptism sanctified the water of the pools and the rivers.” The hymn, which the congregation sings at the procession of the Epiphany service reveals that Jesus Christ went into water and sanctified it. “What given space to Him He spread out His brightness in that and so went into the water and sanctified it.”
The Fathers of the Church clearly point out the positive response of river Jordan and its transformation. Gregory of Nyssa in his sermon on the “Day of the Light” says, “He blessed the body that is baptized and water that baptizes.” Again he says, “Jordan alone of rivers receives in itself the first fruits of sanctification and benediction conveyed in its channel to the whole world.”
According to Ephrem the Syrian Jesus through His baptism in Jordan mingled His might and compassion to the water. Because of this the whole water resources gets heavenly grace. “God in His mercy stopped and came down to mingle his compassion and mercy with the water.” Ephrem in his hymn on Baptism 32, 5-7 says similar aspects, example: “The river which received Him was sanctified.”
St. Ignatius of Antioch in his letter to the Ephesians (18, 2) states that Christ was baptized in the Jordan to purify all water sources on the earth. Jacob of Serugh says about the baptism of Christ. “The Son trod, the great highway of baptism causing his shekhina of baptism causing his river so that all water might receive the power to heal.” He further states, “Our Lord went down to the Jordan, and the whole nature of water stirred with joy. The entire nature of the water perceived that our Lord had visited them. Seas, deeps, rivers, springs and pools all thronged together to receive the blessings from our Lord’s footsteps.”
Thus here we can conclude that through Christ’s baptism all water sources on the earth and this water got the power of sanctification and purification. An Ecological concern is very much important here as water purifies regenerates and spiritually activate.
The theological reason of the sanctification of water is based on Christ’s Baptism. Indeed, this theme is expanded into the use of water for healing, sanctification, and purification. The following prayer of the Epiphany service clearly signifies the action of the consecrated water in our day today life. The one of the prayers upon the water the priest prays, “You sanctified the abundance of the river Jordan by sending upon it from heaven your Holy Spirit, at the time of Your Baptism…Blessed these waters bestow upon them the grace of Jordan make them fountains of blessings, the gift of holiness, the forgiveness of sins, for the healing of sickness, for the support of the weak, unapproachable by the powers of the adversary; for the healing of souls and bodies, for the purifications, for the sanctification of homes, for the preservation from all the injuries.”
The real purpose of the blessing of the water in Epiphany is made clear in this prayer. Here we experience a multifaceted approach to the Baptism of Christ and its effects in the daily life. Through a simple element, water, the wholeness of salvation in Christ is shown to work in all aspects of life. The drinking of water by all people, the applying to the body our sprinkling in the house reveals God’s multifacted blessing through Christ to the world and to the nature. These varied aspects of water are again seen in other prayers as well. In the sedro (long prayer) of the Denho service priest prays: “Bless these waters that are set before us, send to them the grace, the power and the priestly operation of your Holy Spirit, that they may be unto all who take from them or participate in them the gift of divine healing of their souls, bodies and spirits.”
Along with the healing aspect of water the following prayer clearly describes the sanctification aspect of water. Water purifies and sanctifies and heals the person by removing all evil guilt and give peace of salvation and redemption.
“Bless these waters by the power of your Holy Spirit and grant to them the grace and power against all opposing forces and grant to all those who participate in them by drinking or sprinkling or by any other means, healing of soul and body and rich mercies from removal from all evil and salvation and peace of our life.”  Further the priest prays: “O Lord as you bless these waters by your grace bestow upon all those who touch them or participate in them or use them, in true faith, for any purpose what so ever blessings, holiness and purification, health, healing and rest of the afflicted, encouragement, aid and freedom from all mental and carnal passions.”
Water with the presence of Holy Spirit gives a complete liberation both externally and internally. In the liturgical sacrament water is used for wholeness for the body and soul. Water is the symbol of life as well.
Water is the life giving element at the same time it is symbol of destruction and death too. It is the mysterious depth of water which kills and annihilates the dark habitation of the demonic powers, the very image of the irrational uncontrollable elements of the world.
And also water is the principle of purification and sanctification. Through this each person gets healing, sanctification, purification, renewal and regeneration that is the salvation of the whole personality. Thus a whole network of theological issues about water is inter- connected in the liturgy of the feast of Epiphany.
4. IN THE BLESSING OF THE HOUSE
Here water is used to sprinkle all over the house at the end of the service. The celebrant bless the water with a prayer, “This water is blessed and cleansed in the name of the Father, of the Son and of the Holy Spirit as it to be the sprinkle for the cleansing of the home.” Here also water is used for cleansing and purification. The blessed water purifies and cleanses the newly consecrated home and the house hold.
Along with the cleansing aspect it denotes the protection also. With the sprinkling the celebrant also seals the sign of the Cross on the door posts of the house with water. This is to commemorate the Old Testament sealing of the house of the Israelites with the blood of the lamb to protect themselves from the attack of the destroyer (Ex 12, 21-23). Like the people of Israel here the sealing with the water is the symbol of the Holy Spirit who protects the house and the house holders from the attack of saitan, who is the destroyer. Thus water symbolizes both cleansing and protection of the Holy Spirit for house and house holder.
5. IN THE CEREMONY OF THE WASHING OF THE FEET
On Mundy Thursday the Bishop washes the feet of 12 persons to reenact the washing of the feet of Apostles by Jesus Christ (Jn 13, 4-20). The primary meaning of this ceremony is to illustrate the humility of Jesus Christ. But it has its own spiritual meaning.
The washing with the water symbolizes cleaning. Through the external washing with water our internal impurities are cleansed and our souls are purified. Thus the whole body is sanctified with this act. Physical purification is must for taking part in the special meal especially at a special occasion. Theologically also, external sanctification corresponds to internal purification and personal virtues. In the OT also can find the reference to the washing of the feet but a different perspective. In the OT washing of feet was a sign of hospitality: a man to wash the feet of guest on the arrival at his house (Gen 18, 4; 19, 2; 24, 32; Judges 19, 21).
During the early centuries this washing of the feet was also performed in the baptismal service especially for adult. “In many Churches in both East and West when the candidates had to come up from the baptismal font their feet were washed by the Bishop, assisted by the clergy. The reading of St. John chapter 13 linked this ceremony with the washing of the feet at the last supper. In most places the purpose seems to have been to remind the neophytes to perform works of humble charity. But Ambrose of Milan insisted that this rite had a sacramental effect, namely to protect the new Christian from the tendency to sin inherited from Adam.
In the West Syrian rite this washing of the feet was also performed in the profession of monks. These feet’s of the newly professed monks are washed by Bishops and priests. This also shows the cleansing of the person from the impurities and also teaches about humility. Therefore the primary meaning of the washing of feet with water is cleansing. The prayer of the ceremony shows this fact vividly. In the opening prayer the celebrant prays, “O Lord God, that by washing with these waters we become cleansed and purified from all the bitterness and wickedness of the adversaries, as well as from the different and corruption of sin and free us from the passions of envy, pride, wrath, and hatred all through the day of our life.”
Thus complete cleansing is effected through washing in the water. Through washing we are cleansed and purified from all the bitterness and wickedness of devil who is our adversary in our spiritual life. And at the same time we are free from the passion of envy, pride, wrath, and hatred which bind us into the control of our adversary. This idea can be seen more elaborately in the prayers said upon the water: “May we be counted among your followers and be cleansed from all the defilement of sin by these waters.”
The Celebrant further prays: “O Lord God, bless all of us your servants both those who are washes and those who are washed as well as those who approach these waters with faith and may they cleanse us from all the foulness of sin and from all unrighteousness acts.”
Again the celebrant prays when he washes the feet of each one: “May the Lord God wash away from you all the behavior of the old man and renew you in the Spirit and in the truth and all of us with you.” Here the old man signifies the devil. Through the washing in water our internal impurities are washed away and thus we become new persons in the Spirit and in the truth. And finally we get humility and meekness to live in this world like Jesus Christ.
6. SYMBOLISM OF WATER IN THE FEAST OF PENTECOST
In the West Syrian Liturgical tradition the feast always falls on Sunday the fifteenth day after Easter. It is a commemorative feast of Holy Spirit. This service has three parts. The first part is addressed to the Father, the second to the Son, and the third to the Holy Spirit. At the conclusion of the each part the priest sprinkles the blessed water upon the congregation. The rubrics of this acts in the liturgical text explains: “The priest then goes down from the sanctuary and sprinkles the congregation with the drops of water which signifies the gift of the Holy Spirit that descends upon the disciples in the upper room.” From this we understand that the sprinkling of the blessed water at the service of Pentecost signifies descend of Holy Spirit on the congregation.
We can see some references in the Old Testament and New Testament, water as the presence of the Holy Spirit. In Gen 1, 1-2; we read that the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the water which means at the beginning the Spirit of God was brooding over the water and made it alive. Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman (Jn 4, 4) is the reading for the second part of the liturgy. Here the water is not simply a symbol of power or strength, but of a person namely the Spirit whom the Father said (Is 44, 3).
According to patristic view water is one of the visible sign of the Holy Spirit. For Cyril of Jerusalem, water is fit emblem of the Holy Spirit. He himself asked the question that, “why did God put the grace of the Spirit on the water?”
Because by water all things subsist, because water brings forth grass and living things, because the water the showers comes down from heaven, because it comes down in one form but works in many forms. For one fountain waterth the whole of the paradise, and one and the same rain comes down upon all the world, yet becomes white in the lily, and red in the rose, and purple in the violets and by acinths and different and varied in each several kind; so it is one in the palm tree and another in the vine, and all in all things, and yet is one rain does not change in itself and comes down first as one thing, then as another, but adapting itself to the constitution of each things which receives it, it becomes to each what is suitable.
Here Cyril point out the use of water in the nature at the same time main intension is to relate the action of the Holy Spirit with that of the water. From the above explanation we arrive at the inference that water is the visible sign of the Holy Spirit. In the feast of the Pentecost sprinkling of water upon the people which signifies the hovering of the Holy Spirit upon the Church inorder to impart the gift of the Spirit to its members. Holy Spirit empowers the Christians with the divine spiritual gifts. As water is used for this feast spiritual gifts are imparted not only to human beings but also to the entire nature.
Water is an important element used in the various liturgical occasions of the West Syrian Churches. The idea of new creation and purification are the two major themes of Baptism. The prayers of the consecration of the water in Epiphanies states that the consecrated water has healing, purifying, sanctifying, and cleansing power. Thus it gives salvation to the whole personality of the person, the Church and creation as a whole.
The study of the symbolism of the water in liturgy of Baptism and Epiphany reveals that Christian Baptism is the participation in the events after life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In the first instance of the Eucharistic liturgy, water used to denote the human nature of Jesus Christ. And also it represents the whole creation because water is taken from the nature and life is sustained with the nurturing of water. And in the second instance water signifies the cleansing or purifying aspect both externally and spiritually.
In the Pentecost water is the visible sign of the Holy Spirit. The sprinkling of water is the symbol of the hovering of the Holy Spirit upon the Church inorder to impart the gift of the Spirit to its members. Holy Spirit empowers the Christians with the divine spiritual gifts. As water is used for this feast spiritual gifts are imparted not only to human beings but also to the entire nature.
In the ceremony of the Washing of the Feet water symbolizes the purifying aspect. Through the external washing our internal impurities are purified and sanctified and thus we become new person. The whole congregation experiences this purifying aspect. And in the liturgy of the blessing of the house, sprinkling of water and inscribing the sign of the cross with water symbolizes the Holy Spirit who seals and protects the house and house hold from the attack of the destroyer.
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 S. P., BROCK, “Holy Spirit in the Syrian Baptismal Tradition,” J. VELLIAN ed., The Syrian Churches Series Vol. IV (Kottayam, 1979) 76.
 S. P., BROCK, “Holy Spirit in the Syrian Baptismal Tradition,” 76.
 S. P., BROCK, “Baptismal Themes in the Writings of Jacob of Serugh,” The Symposim Syriacum (Rome, 1976) 337. Here after S. P., BROCK, “Baptismal Themes in the Writings of Jacob of Serugh”.
 S. P., BROCK, “Baptismal Themes in the Writings of Jacob of Serugh,” 337.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’dono, 65-67.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’dono, 61-62.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’dono, 63.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’dono, 63.
 …, Divyanidhi: Divine Office for Sacramentals of the Syro Malankara Catholic Church (Trivandrum, 2011) 46-47.
 G.W.WRIGHT, The Study of Liturgy (London, 1992) 130.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’don, 175.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’dono, 91.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’dono, 193.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’don, 190.
 A. Y. SAMUEL, ed., Ma’de’dono, 329.
 P. SCHAFF and H. WAU eds., “Cyril of Jerusalem on Baptism” NPNF Vol. VIII (Michigon, 1955) 118.